Available Energy Potential of the Ukrainian Biomass
Ukraine has sufficient energy potential of almost all biomass types and the required scientific and technical industrial background for the development of such energy sector. Rates of biomass energy potential differ from the potential of other renewable sources by the fact that, besides climatic and meteorological conditions, they depend on the level of economic activity in the country. According to experts from the Institute of Renewable Energy at the National Academy of Science of Ukraine (NASU), the total annual technologically feasible energy potential of biomass key types amounts to 37.88 mln. MW/hour/year of thermal power and 3,03 mln. MW/hour/year of electric power to date, which is equivalent to 6.72 mln. t f.e. (fuel equivalent) (see Table 1). Estimates provided by experts from the Institute of Engineering Thermophysics at the NASU (Table 2) provide similar values and show that the economically feasible potential amounts to about 30 mln. t f.e./year (14 % of Ukraine’s needs in primary energy).
Agricultural wastes and woody biomass are key components of such potential. Energy crops currently represent a “virtual” part of the potential, since, except for several experimental plantations, they are almost not cultivated in Ukraine.
It should be noted that biomass potential rates vary depending on crops yielding capacity.
Table 1. Energy potential of the Ukrainian biomass (Institute of Renewable Energy at the National Academy of Science of Ukraine, 2009)
|No.||Oblasts||Technologically feasible Substitution of organic fuel, mln. tf.e./year|
|1.||AR of Crimea||0,99|
Table 2. Energy potential of the Ukrainian biomass (2007-2008, estimates by the Institute of Engineering Thermophysics at the NASU)
|Biomass type||Energy potential, mln. t f.e.|
|Cereal crops straw||10.39||5.21||1.34 (3.31)*|
|Rape straw||1.07||0.75||0.75 (2.06)|
|Maize processing wastes (footstalks, leaves, cobs)||5.70||3.99||2.79 (4.31)|
|Sunflower wastes (footstalks, heads)||4.27||2.86||2.86 (4.48)|
|Agricultural secondary wastes (sugar-beet pulp, sunflower husk, rice husk)||1.11||1.01||0.65 (0.63)|
|Woody biomass||2.13||1.66||1.48 (1.63)|
|Biogas from manure||3.27||2.45||0.76|
|Biogas from solid waste landfills||0.77||0.46||0.26|
|Biogas from waste waters||0.21||0.13||0.09|
- poplar, silver-grass, acacia, alder, willow
- rape (straw)
- rape (biodiesel)
- maize (biogas)
* Data for 2008
** Data are virtual (only free land plots for their planting are available)2.1 Analysis of possible scenarios of resources potential